James Madison
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1751

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1773


in 1773

Undated correspondence

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in 1773

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Letter from James Madison, Sr. to William Daignerfield

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1774



"That diabolical Hell conceived principle of persecution rages amoung some and to their eternal Infamy the Clergy can furnish their Quota of Imps for such business."


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"Union of religious sentiments begets a surprising confidence, and ecclesiastical establishments tend to great ignorance and corruption; all of which facilitate the execution of mischievous projects."


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"Religious bondage shackles and debilitates the mind and unfits it for every noble enterprize, every expanded prospect."


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1777


with
in 1777

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1781


Transcript of General Orders signed by Edward Hand

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1782


1782 April 9

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1782 April 23

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1782 June 25

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1782 July 9

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1782 July 16

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1782 July 23

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1782 August 20

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1782 September 3

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1782 September 12

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1782 September 20

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1782 October 1

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1782 October 22

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1782 October 29

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1782 November 4

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Letter from Isaac Hite

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1783

in 1783

James Madison

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in 1783

Ja. Madison

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"[T]he citizens of the United States are responsible for the greatest trust ever confided to a political society. If justice, good faith, honor, gratitude and all the other qualities which ennoble the character of a nation and fulfill the ends of government be the fruits of our establishments, the cause of liberty will acquire a dignity and lustre, which it has never yet enjoyed, and an example will be set, which cannot but have the most favourable influence on the rights on Mankind. If on the ot"


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"If justice, good faith, honor, gratitude and all the other qualities which enoble the character of a nation, and fulfill the ends of Government be the fruits of our establishments, the cause of liberty will acquire a dignity and lustre, which it has never yet enjoyed, and an example will be set, which can not but have the most favorable influence on the rights of Mankind."


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Letter to Edmund Pendleton

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1784


in 1784

"Attempts to enforce by legal sanctions, acts obnoxious to so great a proportion of Citizens, tend to enervate the laws in general, and to slacken the bands of Society. If it be difficult to execute any law which is not generally deemed necessary or salutary, what must be the case, where it is deemed invalid and dangerous? And what may be the effect of so striking an example of impotency in the Government, on its general authority?"


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1785

in 1785

"Because we hold it for a fundamental and undeniable truth, that Religion or the duty which we owe to our Creator and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only be reason and convection, not by force or violence. The Religion then of every man must be left to the conviction and conscience of every man: and it is the right of every man to exercise it as these may dictate."


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1785 December 19

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Letter from Richard Barbour

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"What is here a right towards men, is a duty towards the Creator."


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"It is the duty of every man to render to the Creator such homage and such only as he believes to be acceptable to him. This duty is precedent, both in order of time and in degree of obligation, to the claims of Civil Society."


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"The religion then of every man must be left to the conviction and conscience of every man; and it is the right of every man to exercise it as these may dictate."


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"It is the duty of every man to render to the Creator such homage, and such only, as he believes to be acceptable to him. This duty is precedent both in order of time and degree of obligation, to the claims of Civil Society. Before any man can be considered as a member of Civil Society, he must be considered as a subject of the Governor of the Universe."


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1785 September 20

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1785 December 1

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1786


1786 January 21

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1786 September 8

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"There is no maxim in my opinion which is more liable to be misapplied, and which therefore needs elucidation than the current one that the interest of the majority is the political standard of right and wrong . . . . In fact it is only reestablishing under another name and a more specious form, force as the measure of right . . . ."


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1786 November 8

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1786 November 16

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Resolution from the Virginia Council of State to delegates in Congress

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1787


1787 February 10

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"The real difference of interests, lay not between large and small, but between the Northern and Southern states. The institution of slavery and its consequences formed a line of discrimination."


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"We have seen the mere distinction of color made in the most enlightened period of time, a ground of the most oppressive dominion ever exercised by man over man."


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-348274


"All men having power ought to be distrusted to a certain degree."


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1787 July 18

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"In civilized communities, property as well as personal rights are the essential object of the laws, which encourage industry by securing the enjoyment of its fruits: that industry from which property results, and that enjoyment which consists not merely in its immediate use, but in its posthumous destination to objects of choice and of kindred affection. In a just and free government, therefore, the rights both of property and of persons ought to be effectually guarded."


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"[The Convention] thought it wrong to admit in the Constitution the idea that there could be property in men."


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"This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land."


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"[N]o religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States."


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"Congress shall have Power . . . to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Time to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries."


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"Whilst the last members were signing it Doctr. Franklin looking towards the Presidents chair, at the back of which a rising sun happened to be painted, observed to a few members near him, that Painters had found it difficult to distinguish in their art a rising from a setting sun."


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1787 October 11

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"[I]t is more convenient to prevent the passage of a law, than to declare it void after it has passed."


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"In forming the Senate, the great anchor of the Government, the questions as they came within the first object turned mostly on the mode of appointment, and the duration of it."


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"The great desideratum in Government is, so to modify the sovereignty as that it may be sufficiently neutral between different parts of the Society to controul one part from invading the rights of another, and at the same time sufficiently controuled itself, from setting up an interest adverse to that of the entire Society."


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"We upon many occasions, see wise and good men on the wrong as well as on the right side of questions, of the first magnitude to society. This circumstance, if duly attended to, would furnish a lesson of moderation to those, who are ever so much persuaded of their being right, in the controversy."


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1787 November 8

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"Happily for America, happily, we trust, for the whole human race, they pursued a new and more noble course. They accomplished a revolution which has no parallel in the annals of human society. They reared the fabrics of governments which have no model on the face of the globe."


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"[T]he public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties, and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority."


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"By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community."


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"From the the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results."


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"[T]he most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society. Those who are creditors, and those who are debtors, fall under a like discrimination. A landed interest, a manufacturing interest, a mercantile interest, a moneyed interest, with many lesser interests, grow up of necessity in civilized nations, and divide them into different classes, actuated "


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-348907


"In the extent and proper structure of the Union, therefore, we behold a republican remedy for the disease incident to republican government."


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"The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislation and involves the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operations of government."


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"The effect of [representation] is, on the one hand to refine and enlarge the public views by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice, will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations."


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"As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. As long as the connection subsists between his reason and his self-love, his opinions and passions will have a reciprocal influence on each other, and the former will be objects to which the latter attach themselves."


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"[In a democracy] a common passion or interest will, in almost every case , be felt by a majority of the whole; a communication and concert results from the form of government itself; and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious individual."


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"It may be concluded that a pure democracy . . . can admit no cure for the mischiefs of faction."


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"No man is allowed to be a judge in his own cause . . . . With equal, nay with greater reason, bodies of men, are unfit to be both judges and parties at the same time;? ?neither moral nor religious motives can be relied on as an adequate control. They are not found to be such on the injustice and violence of individuals, and lose their efficacy in proportion to the number combined together."


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"The Federal Constitution forms a happy combination in this respect; the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, the local and particular, to the state legislatures."


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"Extend the sphere and you take in a greater variety of parties and interests; you make it less probable that a majority of the whole will have common motive to invade the rights of other citizens."


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"The smaller the society, the fewer probably will be the distinct parties and interests composing it; the fewer the distinct parties and interests, the more frequently will a majority be found of the same party; . . . the more easily will they concert and execute their plans of oppression."


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"The inference to which we are brought is that the causes of faction cannot be removed and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects."


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"It may well happen that the public voice, pronounced by the representatives of the people, will be more constant to the public good than if pronounced by the people themselves."


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"Liberty is to faction, what air is to fire, an aliment without which it instantly expires. But it could not be a less folly to abolish liberty, which is essential to political life, because it nourishes faction, than it would be to wish the annihilation of air, which is essential to animal life, because it imparts to fire its destructive agency."


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"Enlightened statesmen will not always be at the helm."


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"[T]he great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachment of the others."


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"The diversity in the faculties of men from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government."


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"Among the numerous advantages promised by a well-constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction."


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"The apportionment of taxes on the various descriptions of property is an act which seems to require the most exact impartiality; yet there is, perhaps, no legislative act in which greater opportunity and temptation are given to a predominant party to trample on the rules of justice. Every shilling which they overburden the inferior number is a shilling saved to their own pockets."


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"The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them everywhere brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil society."


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"[D]emocracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security, or the rights of property; and have, in general, been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths."


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"Is it not the glory of the people of America, that whilst they have paid a decent regard to the opinions of former times and other nations, they have not suffered a blind veneration for antiquity, for custom, or for names, to overrule the suggestions of their own good sense, the knowledge of their own situation, and the lessons of their own experience? To this manly spirit, posterity will be indebted for the possession, and the world for the example of the numerous innovations displayed on the A"


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-349172
0
factual event in history
-349172
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349172


"In the first place, it is to be remembered, that the general government is not to be charged with the whole power of making and administering laws. Its jurisdiction is limited to certain enumerated objects, which concern all the members of the republic, but which are not to be attained by the separate provisions of any."


-349170
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349170
0
factual event in history
-349170
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349170


"America united with a handful of troops, or without a single soldier, exhibits a more forbidding posture to foreign ambition than America disunited, with a hundred thousand veterans ready for combat."


-349169
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349169
0
factual event in history
-349169
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349169


"In the first place, it is to be remembered, that the general government is not to be charged with the whole power of making and administering laws: its jurisdiction is limited to certain enumerated objects, which concern all the members of the republic, but which are not to be attained by the separate provisions of any."


-349168
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349168
0
factual event in history
-349168
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349168


"Inference is founded upon obvious reasons. Regard to reputation has a less active influence, when the infamy of a bad action is to be divided upon a number, than when it is to fall singly upon one. A spirit of faction . . . will often hurry the persons of whom they were composed into improprieties and excesses for which they would blush in a private capacity."


-348068
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348068
0
factual event in history
-348068
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348068



Letter from George Lee Turberville

-420696
1
Socialnetwork historical importance
-420696
1
factual event in history
-420696
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-420696


Letter from Andrew Shepherd

-420627
1
Socialnetwork historical importance
-420627
1
factual event in history
-420627
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-420627

1788


286358
1
Socialnetwork historical importance
286358
0
factual event in history
286358
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
286358


in 1788

1788 January 8

-420543
1
Socialnetwork historical importance
-420543
1
factual event in history
-420543
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-420543

in 1788

1788 April 16

-420540
1
Socialnetwork historical importance
-420540
1
factual event in history
-420540
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-420540



"These considerations and many others that might be mentioned prove, and experience confirms it, that artisans and manufacturers will commonly be disposed to bestow their votes on merchants."


-348246
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348246
0
factual event in history
-348246
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348246


"Experience has instructed us that no skill in the science of government has yet been able to discriminate and define, with sufficient certainty, its three great provinces the legislative, executive, and judiciary; or even the privileges and powers of the different legislative branches."


-348450
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348450
0
factual event in history
-348450
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348450


"The most that the Convention could do in such a situation, was to avoid the errors suggested by the past experience of other countries, as well as of our own; and to provide a convenient mode of rectifying their own errors, as future experience may unfold them."


-348449
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348449
0
factual event in history
-348449
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348449


"The genius of Republican liberty, seems to demand on one side, not only that all power should be derived from the people; but, that those entrusted with it should be kept in dependence on the people, by a short duration of their appointments; and, that, even during this short period, the trust should be placed not in a few, but in a number of hands."


-348447
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348447
0
factual event in history
-348447
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348447


"It is a misfortune, inseparable from human affairs, that public measures are rarely investigated with that spirit of moderation which is essential to a just estimate of their real tendency to advance or obstruct the public good; and that this spirit is more apt to be diminished than prompted, by those occasions which require an unusual exercise of it."


-348446
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348446
0
factual event in history
-348446
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348446


"Stability in government is essential to national character and to the advantages annexed to it, as well as to that repose and confidence in the minds of the people, which are among the chief blessings of civil society."


-348445
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348445
0
factual event in history
-348445
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348445


"It is impossible for the man of pious reflection not to perceive in it [the Constitution] a finger of that Almighty hand which has been so frequently and signally extended to our relief in the critical stages of the revolution."


-348443
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348443
0
factual event in history
-348443
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348443


"Energy in government is essential to that security against external and internal danger and to that prompt and salutary execution of the laws which enter into the very definition of good government. Stability in government is essential to national character and to the advantages annexed to it, as well as to that repose and confidence in the minds of the people, which are among the chief blessings of civil society."


-348440
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348440
0
factual event in history
-348440
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348440


"The first question that offers itself is, whether the general form and aspect of the government be strictly republican? It is evident that no other form would be reconcileable with the genius of the people of America; with the fundamental principles of the revolution; or with that honourable determination which animates every votary of freedom, to rest all our political experiments on the capacity of mankind for self-government."


-348618
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348618
0
factual event in history
-348618
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348618


"In this relation, then, the proposed government cannot be deemed a national one; since its jurisdiction extends to certain enumerated objects only, and leaves to the several states, a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects."


-348617
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348617
0
factual event in history
-348617
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348617


"The proposed constitution, therefore, even when tested by the rules laid down by its antagonists, is, in strictness, neither a national nor a federal constitution; but a composition of both. In its foundation it is federal, not national; in the sources from which the ordinary powers of the government are drawn, it is partly federal, and partly national; in the operation of these powers, it is national, not federal; in the extent of them again, it is federal, not national; and finally, in the aut"


-348616
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348616
0
factual event in history
-348616
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348616


"If we resort for a criterion to the different principles on which different forms of government are established, we may define a republic to be, or at least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period, or during good behavior."


-348614
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348614
0
factual event in history
-348614
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348614


"It is to be the assent and ratification of the several States, derived from the supreme authority in each State, the authority of the people themselves. The act, therefore establishing the Constitution, will not be a NATIONAL, but a FEDERAL act."


-348613
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348613
0
factual event in history
-348613
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348613


"Each State, in ratifying the Constitution, is considered as a sovereign body, independent of all others, and only to be bound by its own voluntary act. In this relation, then, the new Constitution will, if established, be a FEDERAL, and not a NATIONAL constitution."


-348612
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348612
0
factual event in history
-348612
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348612


"If we resort for a criterion to the different principles on which different forms of government are established, we may define a republic to be, or at least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period, or during good behavior."


-348611
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348611
0
factual event in history
-348611
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348611


"[T]he most productive system of finance will always be the least burdensome."


-348608
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348608
0
factual event in history
-348608
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348608


"Since it is impossible for the people spontaneously and universally, to move in concert towards their object; and it is therefore essential, that such changes be instituted by some informal and unauthorized propositions, made by some patriotic and respectable citizen or number of citizens."


-348702
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348702
0
factual event in history
-348702
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348702


"It has been urged and echoed, that the power ?to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States,? amounts to an unlimited commission to exercise every power which may be alleged to be necessary for the common defense or general welfare. No stronger proof could be given of the distress under which these writers labor for objections, than their stooping to such a misconstruction . . . what colour can "


-348018
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348018
0
factual event in history
-348018
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348018


"How could a readiness for war in time of peace be safely prohibited, unless we could prohibit, in like manner, the preparations and establishments of every hostile nation? The means of security can only be regulated by the means and the danger of attack. They will, in fact, be ever determined by these rules, and by no others . . . . If one nation maintains constantly a disciplined army, ready for service of ambition or revenge, it obliges the most pacific nations who may be within the reach of i"


-348751
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348751
0
factual event in history
-348751
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348751


"How could a readiness for war in time of peace be safely prohibited, unless we could prohibit, in like manner, the preparations and establishments of every hostile nation?"


-348748
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348748
0
factual event in history
-348748
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348748


"THE Constitution proposed by the convention may be considered under two general points of view. The FIRST relates to the sum or quantity of power which it vests in the government, including the restraints imposed on the States. The SECOND, to the particular structure of the government, and the distribution of this power among its branches."


-348745
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348745
0
factual event in history
-348745
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348745


"It is in vain to oppose constitutional barriers to the impulse of self-preservation. It is worse than in vain; because it plants in the Constitution itself necessary usurpations of power, every precedent of which is a germ of unnecessary and multiplied repetitions."


-348742
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348742
0
factual event in history
-348742
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348742


"Security against foreign danger is one of the primitive objects of civil society. It is an avowed and essential object of the American Union."


-348741
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348741
0
factual event in history
-348741
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348741


"But cool and candid people will at once reflect, that the purest of human blessings must have a portion of alloy in them, that the choice must always be made, if not of the lesser evil, at least of the GREATER, not the PERFECT good; and that in every political institution, a power to advance the public happiness, involves a discretion which may be misapplied and abused."


-348740
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348740
0
factual event in history
-348740
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348740


"Every man who loves peace, every man who loves his country, every man who loves liberty ought to have it ever before his eyes that he may cherish in his heart a due attachment to the Union of America and be able to set a due value on the means of preserving it."


-348735
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348735
0
factual event in history
-348735
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348735


"?ssions, be denied any signification whatsoever? For what purpose could the enumeration of particular powers be inserted, if these and all others were meant to be included in the preceding general power? . . . the idea of an enumeration of particulars, which neither explain nor qualify the general meaning, and can have no other effect than to confound and mislead, is an absurdity . . . ."


-347910
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347910
0
factual event in history
-347910
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347910


"We may be assured by past experience, that such a practice [as some states charging high taxes on goods from other states] would be introduced by future contrivances; and both by that and a common knowledge of human affairs, that it would nourish unceasing animosities, and not improbably terminate in serious interruptions of the public tranquility."


-348903
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348903
0
factual event in history
-348903
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348903


"The defect of power in the existing confederacy, to regulate the commerce between its several members is in the number of those which have been clearly pointed out by experience . . . . A very material object of this power was the relief of the States which import and export through other States from the improper contributions levied on them by the latter."


-348894
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348894
0
factual event in history
-348894
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348894


"But the mild voice of reason, pleading the cause of an enlarged and permanent interest, is but too often drowned, before public bodies as well as individuals, by the clamors of an impatient avidity for immediate and immoderate gain."


-348890
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348890
0
factual event in history
-348890
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348890


"On what principle the confederation, which stands in the solemn form of a compact among the states, can be superseded without the unanimous consent of the parties to it? . . . . The . . . question is answered at once by recurring to the absolute necessity of the case; to the great principle of self- preservation; to the transcendent law of nature and of nature?s God, which declares that the safety and happiness of society are the objects at which all political institutions aim."


-348948
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348948
0
factual event in history
-348948
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348948


"It would have marked a want of foresight in the convention, which our own experience would have rendered inexcusable."


-348946
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348946
0
factual event in history
-348946
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348946


"That useful alterations will be suggested by experience, could not but be foreseen . . . . It moreover equally enables the general and state governments to originate the amendment of errors as they may be pointed out by the experience on one side or on the other."


-348945
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348945
0
factual event in history
-348945
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348945


"At first view it might seem not to square with the republican theory, to suppose either that a majority have not the right, or that a minority will have the force to subvert a government . . . . But theoretic reasoning in this, as in most other cases, must be qualified by the lessons of practice."


-348944
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348944
0
factual event in history
-348944
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348944


"The express authority of the people alone could give validity to the Constitution."


-348943
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348943
0
factual event in history
-348943
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348943


"Bills of attainder, ex-post facto laws and laws impairing the obligation of contracts are contrary to the first principles of the social compact, and to every principle of sound legislation."


-349022
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349022
0
factual event in history
-349022
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349022


"The extension of the prohibition to bills of credit must give pleasure to every citizen in proportion to his love of justice, and his knowledge of the true springs of public prosperity."


-349021
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349021
0
factual event in history
-349021
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349021


"What is to be the consequence, in case the Congress shall misconstrue this part [the necessary and proper clause] of the Constitution and exercise powers not warranted by its true meaning, I answer the same as if they should misconstrue or enlarge any other power vested in them . . . the success of the usurpation will depend on the executive and judiciary departments, which are to expound and give effect to the legislative acts; and in a last resort a remedy must be obtained from the people, who"


-349018
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349018
0
factual event in history
-349018
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349018


"The operations of the federal government will be most extensive and important in times of war and danger; those of the State governments, in times of peace and security."


-349052
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349052
0
factual event in history
-349052
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349052


"The number of individuals employed under the Constitution of the United States will be much smaller than the number employed under the particular States."


-349051
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349051
0
factual event in history
-349051
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349051


"The regulation of commerce, it is true, is a new power; but that seems to be an addition which few oppose and from which no apprehensions are entertained."


-349050
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349050
0
factual event in history
-349050
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349050


"The operations of the federal government will be most extensive and important in times of war and danger; those of the State governments, in times of peace and security."


-349049
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349049
0
factual event in history
-349049
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349049


"We have heard of the impious doctrine in the old world, that the people were made for kings, not kings for the people. Is the same doctrine to be revived in the new, in another shape - that the solid happiness of the people is to be sacrificed to the views of political institutions of a different form? It is too early for politicians to presume on our forgetting that the public good, the real welfare of the great body of the people, is the supreme object to be pursued; and that no form of govern"


-349048
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349048
0
factual event in history
-349048
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349048


"It is too early for politicians to presume on our forgetting that the public good, the real welfare of the great body of the people, is the supreme object to be pursued; and that no form of government whatever has any other value than as it may be fitted for the attainment of this object."


-349047
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349047
0
factual event in history
-349047
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349047


"The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce; with which last the power of taxation will, for the most part, be connected. The powers reserved to the several states will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, "


-347933
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347933
0
factual event in history
-347933
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347933


"But ambitious encroachments of the federal government, on the authority of the State governments, would not excite the opposition of a single State, or of a few States only. They would be signals of general alarm . . . But what degree of madness could ever drive the federal government to such an extremity."


-349156
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349156
0
factual event in history
-349156
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349156


"A local spirit will infallibly prevail much more in the members of Congress than a national spirit will prevail in the legislatures of the particular States."


-349153
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349153
0
factual event in history
-349153
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349153


"The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny."


-349174
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349174
0
factual event in history
-349174
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349174


"I wish not to be regarded as an advocate for the particular organizations of the several state governments . . . they carry strong marks of the haste, and still stronger marks of the inexperience, under which they were framed."


-349173
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-349173
0
factual event in history
-349173
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-349173


"In the next place, to show that unless these departments be so far connected and blended as to give to each a constitutional control over the others, the degree of separation which the maxim requires, as essential to a free government, can never in practice be duly maintained."


-348073
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348073
0
factual event in history
-348073
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348073


"I have appealed to our own experience for the truth of what I advance on this subject [that the legislative power is the predominant power]. Were it necessary to verify this experience by particular proofs, they might be multiplied without end. I might find a witness in every citizen who has shared in, or been attentive to, the course of public administrations."


-348071
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348071
0
factual event in history
-348071
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348071


"Experience assures us, that the efficacy of the provision has been greatly over-rated; and that some more adequate defense is indispensably necessary for the more feeble, against the more powerful members of the government."


-348070
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348070
0
factual event in history
-348070
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348070


"It will not be denied that power is of encroaching nature and that it ought to be effectually restrained from passing the limits assigned to it."


-348069
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348069
0
factual event in history
-348069
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348069


"The danger from legislative usurpations, which, by assembling all power in the same hands, must lead to the same tyranny as is threatened by executive usurpations."


-348067
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348067
0
factual event in history
-348067
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348067


"[I]n the next place, to show that unless these departments be so far connected and blended as to give to each a constitutional control over the others, the degree of separation which the maxim requires, as essential to a free government, can never in practice be duly maintained."


-348061
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348061
0
factual event in history
-348061
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348061


"Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of."


-348060
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348060
0
factual event in history
-348060
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348060


"For the same reason that the members of the State legislatures will be unlikely to attach themselves sufficiently to national objects, the members of the federal legislature will be likely to attach themselves too much to local objects."


-348059
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348059
0
factual event in history
-348059
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348059


"It will not be denied that power is of an encroaching nature and that it ought to be effectually restrained from passing the limits assigned to it. After discriminating, therefore, in theory, the several classes of power, as they may in their nature be legislative, executive, or judiciary, the next and most difficult task is to provide some practical security for each, against the invasion of the others."


-348058
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348058
0
factual event in history
-348058
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348058


"One hundred and seventy-three despots would surely be as oppressive as one."


-348057
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348057
0
factual event in history
-348057
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348057


"The legislative department is everywhere extending the sphere of its activity and drawing all power into its impetuous vortex."


-348056
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348056
0
factual event in history
-348056
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348056


"As the people are the only legitimate fountain of power, and it is from them that the constitutional charter, under which the several branches of government hold their power, is derived, it seems strictly consonant to the republican theory to recur to the same original authority."


-348107
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348107
0
factual event in history
-348107
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348107


"As every appeal to the people would carry an implication of some defect in the government, frequent appeals would in great measure deprive the government of that veneration, which time bestows on everything, and without which perhaps the wisest and freest governments would not possess the requisite stability. If it be true that all governments rest on opinion, it is no less true that the strength of opinion in each individual, and its practical influence on his conduct, depend much on the number"


-348010
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348010
0
factual event in history
-348010
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348010


"?htened reason. But a nation of philosophers is as little to be expected as the philosophical race of kings wished for by Plato. And in every other nation, the most rational government will not find it a superfluous advantage, to have the prejudices of the community on its side."


-347918
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347918
0
factual event in history
-347918
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347918


"When men exercise their reason coolly and freely, on a variety of distinct questions, they inevitably fall into different opinions, on some of them. When they are governed by a common passion, their opinions if they are so to be called, will be the same."


-348245
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348245
0
factual event in history
-348245
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348245


"[I]t is the reason alone, of the public, that ought to control and regulate the government."


-348244
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348244
0
factual event in history
-348244
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348244


"It may be considered as an objection inherent in the principle, that as every appeal to the people would carry an implication of some defect in the government, frequent appeals would in great measure deprive the government of that veneration which time bestows on every thing, and without which perhaps the wisest and freest governments would not possess the requisite stability . . . a constitutional road to the decision of the people ought to be marked out and kept open, for certain great and ext"


-348243
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348243
0
factual event in history
-348243
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348243


"The passions, therefore, not the reason, of the public would sit in judgment. But it is the reason, alone, of the public, that ought to control and regulate the government. The passions ought to be controlled and regulated by the government."


-348242
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348242
0
factual event in history
-348242
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348242


"The members of the legislative department . . . are numerous. They are distributed and dwell among the people at large. Their connections of blood, of friendship, and of acquaintance embrace a great proportion of the most influential part of the society . . . they are more immediately the confidential guardians of their rights and liberties."


-348240
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348240
0
factual event in history
-348240
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348240


"To what expedient then shall we finally resort, for maintaining in practice the necessary partition of power among the several departments, as laid down in the constitution? The only answer that can be given is, that as all these exterior provisions are found to be inadequate, the defect must be supplied, by so contriving the interior structure of the government, as that its several constituent parts may, by their mutual relations, be the means of keeping each other in their proper places."


-348283
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348283
0
factual event in history
-348283
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348283


"In a free government the security for civil rights must be the same as that for religious rights."


-348282
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348282
0
factual event in history
-348282
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348282


"This policy of supplying by opposite and rival interests, the defect of better motives, might be traced through the whole system of human affairs, both private and public."


-348281
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348281
0
factual event in history
-348281
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348281


"In a free government, the security for civil rights must be the same as for religious rights. It consists in the one case in the multiplicity of interests, and in the other, in the multiplicity of sects."


-348280
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348280
0
factual event in history
-348280
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348280


"It is of great importance in a republic, not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers; but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of the other part."


-348279
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348279
0
factual event in history
-348279
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348279


"A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions."


-348278
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348278
0
factual event in history
-348278
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348278


"In a single republic, all the power surrendered by the people, is submitted to the administration of a single government; and usurpations are guarded against by a division of the government into distinct and separate departments. In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by the people, is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each, subdivided among distinct and separate departments. Hence a double security arises on the rights of the pe"


-347935
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347935
0
factual event in history
-347935
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347935


"The definition of the right of suffrage is very justly regarded as a fundamental article of republican government."


-348347
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348347
0
factual event in history
-348347
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348347


"Frequent elections are unquestionably the only policy by which this dependence and sympathy can be effectually secured. But what particular degree of frequency may be absolutely necessary for the purpose, does not appear to be susceptible of any precise calculation; and must depend on a variety of circumstances with which it may be connected. Let us consult experience, the guide that ought always to be followed, whenever it can be found."


-348346
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348346
0
factual event in history
-348346
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348346


"In a society under the forms of which the stronger faction can readily unite and oppress the weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign as in a state of nature."


-348344
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348344
0
factual event in history
-348344
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348344


"Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit."


-348342
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348342
0
factual event in history
-348342
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348342


"If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself."


-348341
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348341
0
factual event in history
-348341
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348341


"No man can be a competent legislator who does not add to an upright intention and a sound judgment, a certain degree of knowledge of the subjects on which he is to legislate."


-348389
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348389
0
factual event in history
-348389
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348389


"The important distinction so well understood in America between a constitution established by the people, and unalterable by the government; and a law established by the government, and alterable by the government, seems to have been little understood and less observed in any other country. Wherever the supreme power of legislation has resided, has been supposed to reside also, a full power to change the form of government."


-348388
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348388
0
factual event in history
-348388
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348388


"The public affairs of the union are spread throughout a very extensive region, and are extremely diversified by the local affairs connected with them, and can with difficulty be learnt in any other place, than in the central councils, to which a knowledge of them will be brought by the representatives of every part of the empire. Yet some knowledge of the affairs, and even of the laws of all the states, ought to be possessed by the members from each of the states."


-348387
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348387
0
factual event in history
-348387
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348387


"Happily for mankind, liberty is not, in this respect, confined to any single point of time, but lies within extremes, which afford sufficient latitude for all the variations which may be required by the various situations and circumstances of civil society."


-348386
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348386
0
factual event in history
-348386
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348386


"No man will subject himself to the ridicule of pretending that any natural connection subsists between the sun or the seasons, and the period within which human virtue can bear the temptations of power. Happily for mankind, liberty is not, in this respect, confined to any single point of time, but lies within extremes, which afford sufficient latitude for all the variations which may be required by the various situations and circumstances of civil society."


-348385
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348385
0
factual event in history
-348385
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348385


"The important distinction so well understood in America between a constitution established by the people, and unalterable by the government; and a law established by the government, and alterable by the government, seems to have been little understood and less observed in any other country. Wherever the supreme power of legislation has resided, has been supposed to reside also, a full power to change the form of government."


-348384
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348384
0
factual event in history
-348384
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348384


"The true question to be decided then is whether the smallness of the number [of representatives], as a temporary regulation, be dangerous to the public liberty . . . . I must own that I could not give a negative answer to this question, without first obliterating every impression which I have received with regard to the present genius of the people of America, which actuates the state legislatures, and the principles which are incorporated with the political character of every class of citizens."


-347982
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347982
0
factual event in history
-347982
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347982


"I am unable to conceive that the state legislatures which must feel so many motives to watch, and which possess so many means of counteracting the federal legislature, would fail either to detect or to defeat a conspiracy of the latter against the liberties of their common constituencies."


-348480
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348480
0
factual event in history
-348480
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348480


"[Regarding legislative assemblies,] the number ought at most to be kept within a certain limit, in order to avoid the confusion and intemperance of a multitude. In all very numerous assemblies, of whatever characters composed, passion never fails to wrest the scepter from reason. Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob."


-348479
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348479
0
factual event in history
-348479
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348479


"As there is a degree of depravity in mankind which requires a certain degree of circumspection and distrust, so there are other qualities in human nature, which justify a certain portion of esteem and confidence. Republican government presupposes the existence of these qualities in a higher degree than any other form. Were the pictures which have been drawn by the political jealousy of some among us, faithful likenesses of the human character, the inference would be that there is not sufficient "


-347948
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347948
0
factual event in history
-347948
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347948


"The experience of Great Britain which presents to mankind so many political lessons, both of the monitory and exemplary kind, and which has been frequently consulted in the course of these enquiries, corroborates the result of the reflections which we have just made."


-348615
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348615
0
factual event in history
-348615
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348615


"If this spirit shall ever be so far debased, as to tolerate a law not obligatory on the legislature, as well as on the people, the people will be prepared to tolerate any thing but liberty."


-348752
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348752
0
factual event in history
-348752
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348752


"Who are to be the objects of popular choice? Every citizen whose merit may recommend him to the esteem and confidence of his country."


-348750
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348750
0
factual event in history
-348750
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348750


"Reason, on the contrary, assures us, that as in so great a number, a fit representative would be most likely to be found, so the choice would be less likely to be diverted from him, by the intrigues of the ambitious, or the bribes of the rich."


-348749
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348749
0
factual event in history
-348749
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348749


"It is possible that these may all be insufficient to control the caprice and wickedness of man. But are they not all that government will admit, and all that human prudence can devise?"


-348747
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348747
0
factual event in history
-348747
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348747


"Ingratitude is a common topic of declamation against human nature; and it must be confessed, that instances of it are but too frequent and flagrant both in public and in private life. But the universal and extreme indignation which it inspires, is itself a proof of the energy and prevalence of the contrary sentiment."


-348746
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348746
0
factual event in history
-348746
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348746


"There is in every breast a sensibility to marks of honor, of favor, of esteem, and of confidence, which, apart from all considerations of interest, is some pledge for grateful and benevolent returns. Ingratitude is a common topic of declamation against human nature; and it must be confessed, that instances of it are but too infrequent and flagrant both in public and in private life. But the universal and extreme indignation which it inspires, is itself a proof of the energy and prevalence of the"


-348744
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348744
0
factual event in history
-348744
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348744


"Who are to be the objects of popular choice? Every citizen whose merit may recommend him to the esteem and confidence of his country."


-348743
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348743
0
factual event in history
-348743
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348743


"Such will be the relation between the House of Representatives and their constituents. Duty gratitude, interest, ambition itself, are the cords by which they will be bound to fidelity and sympathy with the great mass of the people."


-348739
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348739
0
factual event in history
-348739
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348739


"The house of representatives . . . can make no law which will not have its full operation on themselves and their friends, as well as the great mass of society. This has always been deemed one of the strongest bonds by which human policy can connect the rulers and the people together. It creates between them that communion of interest, and sympathy of sentiments, of which few governments have furnished examples; but without which every government degenerates into tyranny."


-348737
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348737
0
factual event in history
-348737
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348737


"If it be asked what is to restrain the House of Representatives from making legal discriminations in favor of themselves and a particular class of the society? I answer, the genius of the whole system, the nature of just and constitutional laws, and above all the vigilant and manly spirit which actuates the people of America--a spirit which nourishes freedom, and in return is nourished by it."


-348736
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348736
0
factual event in history
-348736
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348736


"The aim of every political Constitution is or ought to be first to obtain for rulers, men who possess most wisdom to discern, and most virtue to pursue the common good of the society; and in the next place, to take the most effectual precautions for keeping them virtuous, whilst they continue to hold their public trust?The most effectual one is such a limitation of the term of appointments, as will maintain a proper responsibility to the people."


-347927
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-347927
0
factual event in history
-347927
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-347927


"The people can never err more than in supposing that by multiplying their representatives, beyond a certain limit, they strengthen the barrier against the government of a few. Experience will forever admonish them that on the contrary, after securing a sufficient number for the purposes of safety, of local information, and of diffusive sympathy with the whole society, they will counteract their own views by every addition to their representatives. The countenance of the government may become mor"


-348826
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348826
0
factual event in history
-348826
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348826


"The smaller the number and the more permanent and conspicuous the station of men in power, the stronger must be the interest which they will individually feel in whatever concerns the government."


-348825
2
Socialnetwork historical importance
-348825
0
factual event in history
-348825
0
history falacy
Details about  event in history
-348825


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